Pes planus (Flat feet)
Many people do not develop arches on the soles of their feet and are therefore said to have “flat feet”. As long as this causes no pain or other problems treatment is usually not necessary. Foot orthotics are helpful in patients with discomfort or pain, particularly if this has developed as a result of weakness or injury of the tibialis posterior tendon on the inner aspect of the hindfoot. Occasionally, symptoms can be more severe and surgery to repair or replace the damaged tendon with or without a realignment procedure of the heel bone becomes necessary.
Pes cavus (High arched feet)
Pes cavus may be hereditary or acquired, and the underlying cause may be neurological or neuromuscular. People with pes cavus sometimes—though not always—have difficulty finding shoes that fit and may require support in their shoes. Children with high arches who have difficulty walking may wear specially-designed insoles, which are available in various sizes and can be made to order. Individuals with pes cavus frequently report foot pain, which can lead to a significant limitation in function. The range of problems a patient may have include metatarsalgia, pain under the ball of the feet, arch pain, painful callosities (hard skin on the sole of the feet), ankle arthritis, and Achilles tendon pain.